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Japan
A.NATIONAL COMMITTEE
1.

Mr. Mitsuo Ishijima
Secretary General
Japanese National Committee, ICID (JNC-ICID)
Overseas Land Improvement Cooperation Office
Design Division, Rural Infrastructure Department
Rural Development Bureau
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
1-2-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 100-8950

Tel : +81-3-3595-6339, +81-3-3592-1481
Email : jncid@maff.go.jp
Website : http://www.maff.go.jp/e/nousin/kaigai/icid/index.html

B.NATIONAL COMMITTEE PRESIDENT / CHAIRMAN
2.

Dr. Yohei SATO
Chairman, Japanese National Committee, ICID
Professor Emeritus
The University of Tokyo

Email : sato-yoh@mail2.accsnet.ne.jp

C.ICID OFFICE BEARERS - PRESENT
3.

Er. Naoki Hayashida
Vice President, ICID
Chairman, The Japanese Socieity of Rural Development Engineers
5-34-4 Shinbashi, Minato-ku
Tokyo


Mob : +81 3 3434 5407
Email : hayashida@n-renmei.jp

D.ICID OFFICE BEARERS - HONORAIRE
4.

Dr. Michio NAKAHARA
Vice President Hon., ICID

Email : cxj15240@nifty.ne.jp

5.

Dr. Shigetaka TANIYAMA
Vice President Hon., ICID

Email : taniyama@msc.biglobe.ne.jp

6.

Mr. Shinsuke OTA
Vice President Hon., ICID
Senior Advisor
The Japan Association of Rural Solutions for
Environmental Conservation and Resource Recycling (JARUS)

Email : shinsuke-ota@r5.dion.ne.jp

E.MEMBERS OF ICID COMMITTEES/WORKING GROUPS
7.

Prof. Dr. Nobumasa HATCHO
Professor
International Development and Environment
School of Agriculture
Kinki University, 3327-204, Nakamachi
Nara-shi, Nara 631-8505
Japan

Tel : +81-742-43-9251
Mob : +81-90-3823-88
Fax : +81-742-43-1593
Email : hatcho@nara.kindai.ac.jp, hatcho_n@yahoo.co.jp

Member - WG-HIST ; Vice Chairman - WG-ENV

8.

Dr. Katsuyuki SHIMIZU
Associate Professor
Faculty of Agriculture
Tottori University
Minami 4-101, Konancho
Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8553

Tel : +81-857-31-5395
Fax : +81-857-31-5395
Email : shimizu@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp

Member - WG-IDSST ; Secretary - WG-IDM

9.

Prof. Masayoshi SATOH
Professor Emeritus
University of Tsukuba
1984-3 Uenomuro
Tsukuba, Ibaraki
305-0023 Japan

Tel : (+) 81-3-3595-6339, (+) 81-3-3592-1481
Email : smasty@mail2.accsnet.ne.jp, satoh.masayoshi@gmail.com

Member - PCTA

10.

Dr. Koji INOSAKO
Associate Professor
Soil and Water Management Lab
Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University
Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho
Tottori 680-8553

Tel : +81-857-31-5393
Fax : +81-857-31-5393
Email : inosako@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp

Member - WG-WATER & CROP

11.

Prof. Dr. Tsugihiro WATANABE
Professor
Regional Planning
Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies
Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi,
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi
Kyoto 606-8501

Tel : +81-75-753-6367
Fax : +81-75-753-6370
Email : nabe@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Chair - WG-CLIMATE

12.

Dr. Takanori NAGANO
Associate Professor
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University
1-1, Rokkodai-cho
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi
Hyogo 657-8501

Tel : +81-78-803-5904
Fax : +81-78-803-5904
Email : naganot@ruby.kobe-u.ac.jp

Member - WG-PQW, WG-DROUGHT

13.

Dr. Yohei SATO
Chairman, JNCID
For address see Sl. No. 2

Email : sato-yoh@mail2.accsnet.ne.jp

Member - EB-JOUR, WG-M&R

14.

Dr. Takao MASUMOTO
Director
Reserch Division for Regional and Renewable Resources Engineering
National Institute for Rural Engineering (NIRE)
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
2-1-6, Kannondai
Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8609

Tel : +81-29-838-7505
Fax : +81-29-838-7609
Email : masumoto@affrc.go.jp

Associate Editor - EB-JOUR ; Vice Chairman - WG-CAFM

15.

Dr. Akira IWAMOTO
President
NTC International Corpration
Harmony Tower 6F
1-32-2, Honcho, Nakano-ku
Tokyo 164-8721

Tel : +81-3-5354-3621
Fax : +81-3-5354-3623
Email : a.iwamoto@ntc-i.co.jp

Member - WG-SON-FARM

16.

Mr. Naokia HAYASHIDA
Chairman
The Japanese Society of Rural Development Engineers
Vice President, ICID
5-34-4, Shinbashi
Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0004

Tel : +81-3-3434-5407
Fax : +81-3-3578-7176
Email : hayashida@n-renmei.jp

Member - ASRWG, PFC

17.

Dr. Rimi OKUSHIMA
Senior Researcher
Agricultural Environment Engineering Research Division
National Institute for Rural Engineering
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
2-1-6, Kannondai
Tsukuba-shi, IBARAKI 305-8609

Tel : +81-29-838-7594
Fax : +81-29-838-7627
Email : limi@affrc.go.jp

Member - Others

18.

Dr. Toshihiko KUNO
Executive Officer
Sanyu Consultants Inc.1-13-17
Kitaohtsuka, Toshima-ku
Tokyo 170-0004

Tel : +81-3-3949-3071
Fax : +81-3-3949-3081
Email : toshihiko-kuno@sanyu-con.co.jp

Member - TF-VE

19.

Mr. Yutaka SUMITA
Chief Technical Advisor
The Japanese Institute of Irrigation and Drainage (JIID)
1-21-17 Toranomon NN Building
Toranomon, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105-0001

Tel : +81-3-3502-1387
Fax : +81-3-3502-1329
Email : yutaka-sumita@jiid.or.jp

Member - Others

20.

Dr. Kazumi Yamaoka
Research Coordinator
Japan International Research Center for
Agricultural Sciences
1-1, Ohwashi, Tsukuba-shi
IBARAKI 305-8686

Tel : +81-29-838-6686
Fax : +81-29-838-6693
Email : kyamaoka@affrc.go.jp.jp

Vice Chairman - WG-IOA

21.

Dr. Naoko KOSHIYAMA
Researcher
Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region
Public Works Research Institute
Hiragishi 1-3-1-34
Toyohira-ku, Sapporo
Hokkaido 062-8602

Tel : +81-11-841-1764
Fax : +81-11-842-9173
Email : koshiyama-n@ceri.go.jp

Member - WG-SDRG

22.

Mr. Shinsuke OTA
Vice President Hon., ICID
Senior Advisor
The Japan Association of Rural Solutions for
Environmental Conservation and Resource Recycling (JARUS)
5-34-4, Shinbashi, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105-0004

Tel : +81-3-3432-5295, +81-3-3432-0743
Email : shinsuke-ota@r5.dion.ne.jp

Member - WG-SDRG, TF-WWF8

23.

Dr. Hajime TANJI
Professor
Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine
35-1, Higashinijuusanban-cho
Towada-shi, Aomori 034-8628

Tel : +81-176-24-9479
Fax : +81-176-25-5450
Email : tanji@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp

Member - WG-SDRG ; Secretary - WG-SDTA

24.

Dr. (Ms.) Naoko Koshiyama
For Address See S.No. 1 Above.

Email : koshiyama-n@ceri.go.jp

Provisional Member - WG-SDRG

Links of Interest
ICID Strategy for Implementing Sector Vision - Water for Food and Rural Development and Country Position Papers, 2000

Directory Contents..

COUNTRY PROFILE - JAPAN


Japan, an island country in the North Pacific Ocean, lies off the northeast coast of mainland Asia and faces Russia, Korea and China; comprising four large islands and thousands of smaller ones. The four major islands - Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku - form a bow-shaped curve that extends for about 1,900 km. It covers a total land area of approximately 378,000 km²&&65293;70% of which is mountainous. There are 4.26 million hectares of agricultural land and an irrigated area of 2.46 million ha. The population was 126 million (as of 2014) with a very high population density, 343 people / km². The official language of Japan is Japanese.

Physiography and Climate


The climate varies considerably from south to north. The average annual rainfall of 1,700 mm is relatively high in global terms and rather evenly distributed. Mountains and hills, which account for 70% of the national land covered in forests and rivers are far steeper than those in Europe or the U.S. The high variability of flow volume also makes it hard to control rivers in Japan.


Other Japanese features include earthquakes and volcanoes. Japan lies on an extremely unstable portion of the Earth’s crust (tectonic plates), which means earthquakes are frequent.


Agriculture


Japan’s key crop is rice and it is one of the world’s leading rice producers. Rice fields make up more than half of national farmland. Japanese farmers also grow a wide variety of other crops, including wheat, soy beans, tea, vegetables (onions, radish, cucumbers, eggplants, lettuce, tomatoes etc.) and fruit (apples, oranges, pears, persimmons etc.). Sugar beet is planted in cold areas and sugar cane in hotter areas. For more details of food production, please see Table 1.


Table 1.
Food Production (2014)


 

Crop

Cropped area
(ha)

Amount of crop
(ton)

Cereal

Rice

1,575,000

8,439,000

Wheat

212,600

852,400

Soy bean

131,600

231,700

Tea

44,800

389,700

Vegetable
(over total of two seasons)

Onion

25,300

1,169,000

Cabbage

19,380

860,600

White radish

11,160

480,200

Radish

10,280

374,200

Cucumber

11,100

548,200

Eggplant

9,570

322,700

Lettuce

13,420

390,300

Tomato

12,100

739,900

Fruit

Apple

37,100

816,300

Orange

42,900

874,700

Pear

12,800

270,700

Persimmon

21,300

240,600


Source: Statistics of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2014
(Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) (http://www.maff.go.jp/j/tokei/index.html)


Agricultural Water Use


Water has always been a vital resource, particularly for use in rice farming among rural communities, although water use for agriculture is slightly declining, due to the recent decrease in farmland. The total was 54.4 billion m³ / year, comprising approximately two-thirds of overall water use of 80.9 billion m³ / year in 2011.


As well as producing food, other functions of irrigation canals have recently been emphasized, such as flood prevention, conservation of biodiversity and the rural environment, fire protection and washing agricultural products/machines.


Development of Irrigation Technology in Japan


A modern irrigation system in Japan was first introduced in the 1950s when the Aichi Irrigation Project installed one of the fastest modern automatic check systems along branch canals to ensure constant and stable water distribution.

Japan basically developed these irrigation canal networks with concrete open channels in both the main and branch lines.

A pipeline system was also introduced in the 1960s for upland crops, while in the 1970s, work began to replace the main canals for paddy fields with pipelines. Many farm ditches in paddy and upland fields were replaced by pipelines from the 1980s. This allows farmers to irrigate their fields as required and draw water individually based on their own farming schedules. Water management systems with tele-monitoring and tele-control systems have also been introduced. These efforts drastically modernized irrigation in Japan.

Water Users’ Groups in Japan


Japan has distinct water users’ groups.


Most of the water management systems in Japan were established during the 17th-19th centuries. After the Second World War, the Land Improvement Act (enacted in 1949) allowed famers to establish water users’ groups called Land Improvement Districts (LIDs), which are essential for Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). In Japan, large and main irrigation facilities such as dams or headworks are managed by LIDs, while farmers or local communities manage terminal canals or small farm roads near paddy fields. The successful PIM method has been transferred to various countries in monsoon climates through international cooperation projects.

However, recent socioeconomic changes in rural areas in Japan have left management vulnerable and requiring new initiatives.


Socioeconomic Change and New Policies


Prior to the rest of the world, Japan experienced a decrease and aging of its population. Moreover, the severity of its agricultural and rural circumstances has been exacerbated by the shift in population from rural to urban areas. For example, the number of farmers decreased to 2.6 million in 2010 (compared to 4.1 million in 1990) and their average age advanced to 65.8 (compared to 59.1 in 1990). Moreover, farmers comprised less than half the population in 72% of agricultural villages, as opposed to only 22% in 1990.

The decline in the population of farmers has weakened rural communities and brought many problems in terms of managing terminal irrigation facilities as local resources. This means it can block various beneficial functions attributed to agriculture and irrigation water, such as flood prevention, fostering groundwater or conserving biodiversity as well as food production.

To address these difficulties, a new political framework was launched in 2007. The Government subsidizes groups of farmers/non-farmers, which help provide multiple functions by canal cleaning, simple renovation of facilities and so forth. A related law was enacted in 2014 to ensure policy, thanks to which activities have been implemented over approximately 2 million ha of farmland, comprising 46% of the total 4.26 million ha of farmland in Japan.

Another serious problem is aging of irrigation facilities. Most irrigation facilities in Japan were constructed right after the Second World War and the Japanese period of high economic growth. The main constructed irrigation facilities, including 50,000 km of main canals and 7,000 dams/ weirs/ pumping stations are estimated to be worth up to 150 billion US dollars, but the equipment in this vast social stock is reaching the end of its service life. To maintain performance, there is a need to develop a highly effective and appropriate management strategy. The new Japanese policy is called Stock Management, which is intended to extend the service life of facilities before they sustain fatal damage. With appropriate precautions based on regular diagnostic function tests, the life cycle cost of the facility can be saved in the long run.


Japan and ICID


Japan has actively participated in ICID activities since 1951, the year Japan joined ICID under a Cabinet decision. The Japanese National Committee (JNCID) hosted the 14th IEC meeting, the 5th ICID Congress in Tokyo in 1963 and the 7th Asian Regional Conference in Tokyo in 1989.

Today, JNCID comprises 18 professionals from various backgrounds such as national government, universities, research centers and private companies and its secretariat office is based in the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan. As well as many contributions in terms of research reports and activities in Working Groups of the ICID Congresses/IECs, JNCID played major roles in the 7th World Water Forum and in launching the framework of the World Water System Heritage of the World Water Council.

The attitude to the Heritage Irrigation Structures of ICID is also very positive. Nationally, JNCID widely issues media releases to collect HIS nominations to be judged by a specially established domestic committee.

JNCID is supported by a private organization, namely the Japanese Association of ICID (JAICID). Its members include 22 organizations and 147 individuals and it organizes annual seminars to support young professionals etc. The President of JAICID is a member of JNCID.




Contact: The Secretariat, Japanese National Committee of ICID (JNC-ICID), Overseas Land Improvement Cooperation Office, Design Division Rural Infrastructure Department Rural Development Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 100-8950, E-mail: jncid@maff.go.jp, Website: <http://www.maff.go.jp/e/nousin/kaigai/icid/index.html>



 

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