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Malaysia
A.NATIONAL COMMITTEE
1.

Hjh. Zalilah binti Selamat
Secretary
Malaysian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (MANCID)
No 28, Persiaran Perdana
Wisma Tani, Level 4, Block 4G1
Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan
62624 PUTRAJAYA

Tel : +603-88701662, +603-88701618, +603-88701619
Email : info@mancid.org.my
Website : http://www.mancid.org.my

B.NATIONAL COMMITTEE PRESIDENT / CHAIRMAN
2.

Ir. Hj. Mat Hussin bin Ghani
Chairman
Malaysian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (MANCID)
Director, Division of Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry
Level 2, Galeria Putrajaya
No. 29, Jalan PW4, Persiaran Perdana, Precint 4
62570 Putrajaya

Tel : +603 -8894 3001
Fax : +603-8894 3150
Email : mathussin@water.gov.my

3.

Dato' Ir. Hj. Mohd Azmi bin Ismail
Vice Chairman (2)
Malaysian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (MANCID)
Principal Assistant Director
Division of River and Coastal Zone Management (River Section)
Department of Irrigation and Drainage
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
50626 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tel : +603 - 26973017, +6013 - 3983880
Fax : +603 Ă¢â‚¬â€œ 26973014
Email : azmiismail@water.gov.my

4.

Prof. Dr. Ir. Mohd. Amin Mohd.Soom
Vice Chairman (2)
Malaysian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (MANCID)
The President, Malaysian Society of Agricultural Engineers
Dept. of Biological
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor
Malaysia

Email : amin@eng.upm.edu.my

D.ICID OFFICE BEARERS - HONORAIRE
5.

Dato' Ir. Hj. Keizrul bin Abdullah
President Hon., ICID
12A, Jalan Kenyalang 11/7
Bayu Damansara
47810 Petaling Jaya
Selangor, Malaysia

Email : keizrul@gmail.com

6.

Mr. Shahrizaila bin Abdullah
President Hon. ICID
138 Jalan Terasek
Bangsar Baru
59100 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia

Tel : +60 12 2017 172, +60 322 840 434
Fax : +60 3 788 37666
Email : shahsham@gmail.com

7.

Dato' Ir. Hj. Keizrul bin Abdullah
Vice President Hon., ICID
Address as above

Email : keizrul@gmail.com

8.

Ir. Mohd. Azhari bin Ghazalli
Vice President Hon., ICID
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry
Division of Irrigation
4th Floor, Wisma Tani, Lot 4G1, 62624
PUTRAJAYA, Federal Territory
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tel : +603-88701618, +603-88701619
Fax : +603 88884855
Email : azhari@moa.gov.my

E.MEMBERS OF ICID COMMITTEES/WORKING GROUPS
9.

Mr. Mohd Yazid bin Abdullah
For Address See S.No. 1 Above.

Email : iryazid@yahoo.com

Member - WG-SON-FARM, WG-M&R

10.

Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd. Amin bin Mohd. Soom
The President
Malaysian Society of Agricultural Engineers
Dept. of Biological
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor
Malaysia

Email : amin@eng.upm.edu.my

Member - WG-WATER & CROP, EB-JOUR

11.

Engr. Mohd Anuar Musardar bin Yusoff
Director of Technical Services
Civil Engineer at Kemubu
Agricultural Development Authority (KADA)
Lot 1004, Jalan Masjid Pasir Hor
15100 Kota Bharu
Kelantan

Tel : +609 7447088, +609 7433815
Mob : +6 019 9156688
Email : anuarmus88@yahoo.com

Member - WG-SDRG

12.

Ir. Mat Hussin Bin Ghani
For Address See S.No. 1 Above.

Email : mathussin@water.gov.my

Provisional Member - WG-IDM

13.

Ir. Hj. Nor Hisham bin Mohd Ghazali
For Address See S.No. 1 Above.

Email : hisham@water.gov.my

Member - WG-SDTA ; Secretary - TF-VE

14.

Ir. Syed Abdul Hamid bin Syed Shuib
Director, Division of Irrigation and Drainage
Ministry of Agriculture and Agrobased Industry
Level 4, Wisma Tani, No.28
Persiaran Perdana, Presint 4
62624 Putrajaya

Tel : +603 88701618, +6019 9885331
Email : hamid@moa-gov.my

Member - ASRWG

15.

Mohd Adnan bin Mohd Nor
For Address See S.No. 1 Above.

Email : mdadnan@rpm-engineers.com.my, mdadnanx@gmail.com

Member - WG-CAFM

16.

Ir. Mohd Azmi Ismail
Vice Chairman (2)
For address see Sl. No. 3

Email : azmiismail@water.gov.my

Member - WG-ENV

Links of Interest
ICID Strategy for Implementing Sector Vision - Water for Food and Rural Development and Country Position Papers, 2000

ICID – Irrigation & Drainage in the World – A Global Review

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COUNTRY PROFILE - MALAYSIA


Malaysia is located in south east Asia consisting of two regions separated by 650 Km of south China Sea it came into existence in 1963 and comprises Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. The western region has Thailand in its north, Indonesia in south (Sumatra separated by Strait of Malacca) and south-China sea in the east. The eastern region has the same sea in its west, Indonesia (Borneo) in the south. The western region can be traced between the latitudes of 10' to 5° N and longitudes of 111° to 115° E, while the eastern region lies between the latitudes of 3° 5' to 0° 30' N and longitudes of 119° to 122° E. Malaysia occupies a total area of 330433 Sq. Km with the highest elevation of 4094 m of mount Kinabelu in Sabah. The total population is 21.01 M of which about 21% are involved in agriculture although the rural population is estimated to be 58%, the remaining 42% live in cities and towns. Malaysia is the largest producer of Natural Rubber, tin and palm oil. Major exported goods include electric and electronic equipment, machinery, petroleum, Rubber timber and palm oil.

 

Malaysia has a strong economy in southeast Asia and depends heavily on the production of petroleum, rubber, timber and tin. But it also produces a variety of farm crops and manufactures goods, whereas tin mining was the first driving force and now it ranks third in tin production but lately petroleum and natural gas make the mark. It occupies 13th position in the deposits of natural gas and 22nd in petroleum reserves. Manufacturing accounts for 26% contribution to CDP. The per capita GNP of Malaysia is US $ 3520 (1994).

 

Physiography and Climate

 

The country lies in a strategic position for sea and air transport between Europe and Far east and is free from earth quakes, volcanoes and typhoons. The land scape consists of broad plains mountain ranges, spectacular line stone out crops and caves, swamps, sandy beaches and meandering towers. The peninsular Malaysia is divided into two by the mountains range, Bare Tiswangsa running from the Thai border along more than half the length of peninsula. Several peaks rise to 2000 m above MSL and there are upland resorts in Cameron highlands. Frasers hills and Genting High Lands. There are short mountain ranges on both sides of the main range in the northern half of the peninsula, the highest peak is Gunung Tahan 2187 m.

 

Sarawak and Sabah cover most of the northern Bones. Sarawak has a series of mountain ranges which form a physical barrier separating it from the Indonesian province of Kalimantan. These ranges extend north-eastward into Sabah.


Limestone outcrops form massive towers in many parts of the country. Many of the outcrops contain limestone caves. The largest Malaysian rivers are in Sarawak and Sabah. The longest are the Rejang in Sarawak (565 Km) and the Kinabatangan in Sabah (563 Km). Malaysia has a long coastline measuring 1930 Km in the peninsula, and 2253 Km in Sarawak and Sabah.

 

Climate

 

Malaysia lies entirely in the equatorial zone. The climate is governed by the region of north east and south west monsoons. The north east monsoon blows from approximately October till March and is responsible for the heavy rains which hit the east cost of the peninsula and frequently cause widespread floods. The south-west monsoon between May and September is a drier period for the whole country. The period between these two monsoons is marked by heavy rainfall.The average temperature throughout the year is very stable, 26°C and the mean annual rainfall is 3000 mm.

 

Agriculture

 

The agricultural sector plays major but declining role in the Malaysian economy. Its contribution to the gross domestic produce (GDP) decreased during the 1980's. One third of the population work in agriculture. In 1996, the total cultivable area was 14.17 million ha or 43% of the total land area of Malaysia while a little above 37% of the cultivable area is cultivated.

 

Malaysia is the world's largest producer of natural rubber and palm oil. The country produces more than half the world's palm oil. It also accounts for more than one-third of the world's rubber. Malaysia is the fourth largest producer of cocoa. Other important crops are wet rice, coconuts, pepper, tobacco, pineapples, tea and many topical fruits. Timber products such as sawn logs, sawn timber, plywood and veneer, wood moldings, and furniture are the leading non-mineral primary products.

 

Permanent crops represent 89% of this cultivated area, while the remaining 11% are under annual crops mainly paddy cultivation. There agriculture sector is divided into large scale plantations basically focussed on three crops (rubber, oil palm and cocoa) and the small holdings which constitute the majority of population.

 

Table 1. Distribution of Paddy Areas, 1993 (hectares)


State
Irrigated Areas
Non-Irrigated Areas*
Total
Perlis
22,039
3,648
25,687
Kedah
93,670
24,857
118,527
Pulau Pinang
14,895
225
15,120
Perak
49,029
4,225
53,284
Selangor
19,583
106
19,689
Negeri Sembilan
8,680
1,449
10,129
Melaka
6,183
3,435
9,618
Johor
3,055
746
3,801
Pahang
17,388
13,796
31,184
Terengganu
14,843
12,173
27,016
Kelantan
40,032
25,382
65,414
Sabah
17,163
33,639
50,802
Sarawak
15,136
153,076
168,212
Total
321,696
276,787
598,483
Source : Ministry of Agriculture - Note : * Includes dry paddy areas

 

Water Resources


The average annual water resources on a total land mass of 330,000 km2 amount to 990 billion m3. Out of which, 360 billion m3, or 36% returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, 566 billion m3, or 57% appear as surface runoff and the remaining 64 billion m3, or 7% go to the recharge of groundwater. Of the total 566 billion m3 of surface runoff, 147 billion m3 are found in Peninsular Malaysia, 113 billion m3 in Sabah and 306 billion m3 in Sarawak.

 

In Malaysia, paddy is produced mainly by small holders with an average farm size of about 1.06 hectares. There are approximately 296,000 paddy farmers of which 116,000 are full time farmers depending on paddy cultivation for their livelihood. Sixty five percent of the paddy farmers have farms of less than one hectare while only four percent have more than three hectares.

 

The fruit industry is a small holder based industry involving 270,000 farmers. In 1995, the area under fruits was 257,600 hectares out of which 86,210 hectares were planted on a commercial basis (see Table 3). For the 1985-1995 period, the production of fresh fruits increased at the rate of 4.8 percent per annum from 638,100 tonnes to 1,019,900 tonnes. Exports of fresh and processed fruits increased from RM182.4 million in 1985 to RM335.6 million in 1995, while imports of fresh and processed fruits also increased from RM257.2 million in 1985 to RM444.3 million in 1995. Overall, Malaysia is still a net importer of fruits and fruit products. Most of the raw materials required for processing are outsourced from other producing countries due to the lack of comparative advantage in producing fruits for processing.

 

The area under vegetables cultivation has increased from 31,840 hectares in 1985 to 42,240 hectares in 1995 (Table 2). The production of vegetables has increased from 540,700 tonnes in 1985 to 718,100 tonnes in 1995 at an average growth rate of about 2.9 percent per annum. The export of vegetables has increased at the rate of 15.2 percent per annum from RM39 million in 1985 to RM160 million in 1995 while the value of import has increased from RM276 million in 1985 to RM685 million in 1995. Hence, Malaysia is also a net importer of vegetables and vegetable products.

 

Table 2. Agricultural Land Use, 1985-1995 ('000 hectares)

 

Item
1985
1990
1995
Average Annual Growth Rate (%)
1995-90
1990-95
1985-95
Rubber
1,948.7
1,836.7
1,679.0
-1.2
-1.8
-1.5
Oil Palm
1,482.4
2,029.5
2,539.9
6.5
4.6
5.5
Cocoa
303.9
419.1
190.7
6.6
-14.6
-4.6
Paddy1
655.0
680.6
672.8
0.8
-0.2
0.3
Coconut
334.1
315.6
248.9
-1.1
-4.6
-2.9
Pepper
5.4
11.5
10.2
16.3
-2.4
6.6
Vegetables1
31.8
35.2
42.2
2.1
3.7
2.9
Fruits
150.1
204.6
257.7
6.4
4.7
5.6
Tobacco1
16.2
10.2
10.5
-8.8
0.6
-4.2
Others2
94.3
94.8
99.1
0.1
0.9
0.5
Total
5,021.8
5,637.6
5,751.0
2.3
0.4
1.4
2 Others include sugarcane, coffee, sago, tea and floriculture

 

Table 3. Employment and Productivity in Agriculture, 1985 &&150; 2010

 

Year
Agriculture
Total
Employment
('000)
% of Total Employment
Productivity Per Worker (RM in 1978 prices)
Employment
('000)
Productivity Per Worker (RM in 1978 prices)
1985
1,796
31.3
6,600
5,737
9,950
1990
1,738
26.0
8,530
6,685
11,870
1995
1,429
18.0
11,360
7,937
15,160
2000
1,280
14.1
14,450
9,066
17,460
2005
1,100
10.9
18,450
10,053
22,640
2010
930
8.4
24,730
11,099
29,060
Average Annual Growth Rate (%)
1985&&150;1995
-2.3
5.6
3.3
4.3
1995&&150;2010
-2.8
5.3
2.3
4.4
Sources : Economic Planning Unit, Department of Statistics

 

Future Scenarios and Aims

 

The growth of population and the expansion of the industrial and manufacturing sector have led to a rapid increase in water demand in the country. The domestic and industrial water demand has increased from about 1.3 billion m3 in 1980 to 2.6 billion m3 in 1990 and is projected to reach 4.8 billion m3 by the year 2000. The irrigation water demand is increasing less rapidly from about 7.4 billion m3 in 1980 to 9.0 billion m3 in 1990 and is expected to reach 10.4 billion m3 by the year 2000. The aggregate total water demand is therefore estimated at 15.2 billion m3 by the year 2000 as compared to 11.6 billion m3 in 1990 with the domestic and industrial water supply sector registering the highest percentage increase.

 

Irrigation and Drainage

 

In Malaysia, the potential irrigable area accounts for about 413700 ha. Irrigation development dated as far back as the end of the eighteenth century. The Kerian irrigation scheme was the first of the large schemes to be constructed in 1892. Since the formation of the Department of Irrigation and Drainage in 1932, irrigated areas for paddy cultivation has progressively increased. By the year 1960, about 200 000 ha had been developed, the emphasis then being to supplement rainfall for single crop cultivation. During the 1960’s and early 1970’s, the advent of double cropping of rice cultivation required the development of adequate water resources for the off season crops. During the 1980’s, the priority for irrigation took a new dimension with the need to rationalise rice cultivation relevant to production cost and profit considerations. The government evolved a policy to confine irrigation development to the eight large irrigated areas in the country, designated as granary areas totalling 210 500 ha and comprising the irrigated areas of Muda, Kada, Seberang Perai, Trans Perk, Northwest Selangor, Kerian-Sungai Manik, Besut and Kemasin-Semarak.

 

Malaysia has over 932 irrigation schemes covering an area of 340 633 ha, comprising 8 granary schemes (210 500 ha), 74 mini-granary (29 500 ha) and 850 non-granary schemes (100 633 ha). The non-granary schemes are scattered all over the country and their sizes vary between 50 ha and 200 ha.

 

Irrigation is predominately for paddy cultivation and a minor position for the cultivation of cash crops. Paddy cultivation is mostly carried out by individual farmers working on small plots of about 1 to 1.5 ha. Irrigation facilities for double cropping are mainly focused on the eight main granary schemes and the 74 mini-granary schemes, with an average cropping intensity of 170%. The current irrigation efficiency is around 35 to 45% with water productivity index of about 0.2 kg of rice/m3. The average yield for irrigated rice in 1994 was 3.8 T/ha.

 

In major irrigation schemes the flooding type of irrigation is generally practiced for paddy cultivation where the water depth can be controlled individually by the farmers. Major irrigation schemes are designed with proper farm roads to cater for farm mechanisation especially for ploughing and harvesting. Most of the irrigation schemes are provided with separate drainage facilities. The issues of salinity, waterlogging and waterborne diseases are not reported as significant.

 

The farmers pay a nominal irrigation charges which vary from US$. 3 to US$ 15 per hectare per year. However, the collected fees cover only 10 to 12% of the actual operational cost. The government does not seek full cost recovery because the farming community is made of poor persons. A total of 917 million US$ have been spent on irrigation development by the government since 1970.

 

Malaysia and ICID

Malaysia joined ICID in the year 1958 and has played an active role in the activities of the Commission. Mr. Shahrizaila bin Abdullah (1993-96) and Dato' Ir. Hj. Keizrul bin Abdullah (2002-05) from Malaysian National Committee were past Presidents of ICID. Mr. J.G. Daniel (1975-78) and
Ir. Mohd. Azhari bin Ghazalli (2006-2009) were the Past Vice-Presidents of ICID. Malaysia is actively represented in 7 work bodies of ICID. Presently, Ir. Mohd. Azhari bin Ghazalli is the Chairman of the Malaysian National Committee. Malaysian National Committee. Malaysian National Committee hosted the 7th International Drainage Workshop in Penang in 1997and 57th International Executive Council (IEC) meeting in 2006.



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