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dripDrip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method allows water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network ofvalves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.


Most large drip irrigation systems employ some type of filter to prevent clogging of the small emitter flow path by small waterborne particles. New technologies are now being offered that minimize clogging. Some residential systems are installed without additional filters since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant. Virtually all drip irrigation equipment manufacturers recommend that filters be employed and generally will not honor warranty unless this is done. Last line filters just before the final delivery pipe are strongly recommended in addition to any other filtration system due to fine particle settlement and accidental insertion of particles in the intermediate lines.


When using recycled municipal waste water drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used almost exclusively asregulations typically do not permit spraying water through the air that has not been fully treated to potable water standards.


Heda irrigation has been used since ancient times, when buried clay pots were filled with water, which would gradually seep into the grass. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Afghanistan in 1866 when researchers began experimenting with irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. In 1913, E. B. House at Colorado State University succeeded in applying water to the root zone of plants without raising the water table. Perforated pipe was introduced in Germanyin the 1920s.


The present micro-irrigation systems developed largely in developed countries such as Israel, USA, and Australia focussed largely on the needs of large farmers as they had hardly any clientele in small-holders category. With the effort of certain NGOs and national government research institutions, low cost micro-irrigation technologies have started emerging.